Classroom Response System ("Clickers") Bibliography

by Derek Bruff, Assistant Director, Vanderbilt Center for Teaching

Below is a bibliography of articles on classroom response systems (CRSs). Most of the articles present some form of research on the effectiveness or impact of CRSs on student learning. The first group of articles are not discipline-specific; the later articles are grouped by discipline. For more on CRSs, visit our CRS Teaching Guide.

Note that some of the links below may not work off of Vanderbilt's campus. If you have trouble following a link or if you know of an appropriate article to add to this bibliography, please contact Derek Bruff.

[263 entries as of June 16, 2010.]

General Audience


  • Banks, D. A. (Ed.). (2006). Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

  • Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with classroom response systems: Creating active learning environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. [More Information]

  • Case, S.M., & Swanson, D.B. (2002). Constructing written test questions for the basic and clinical sciences. Philadelphia: National Board of Medical Examiners.

  • Duncan, D. (2005). Clickers in the classroom: How to enhance science teaching using classroom response systems. San Francisco: Pearson Education.

Introductions to Clickers

Literature Reviews

Research on Student Perceptions

Vendor Comparisons & Adoption Issues

Mobile Devices (Cell Phones, etc.)

Miscellaneous (but Interesting!) Articles

News Articles

Discipline-Specific Audience

Biological Sciences

Business, Accounting, and Management



Computer Science

Earth & Environmental Science





  • Jenkins, A. (2007). Technique and technology: Electronic voting systems in an English literature lecture. Pedagogy, 7(3), 526-533.

Health Professions (Other than Nursing)

Human & Organizational Development

Interdisciplinary Areas


Library Science & Information Literacy  

Mathematics & Statistics

See also the bibliography available at Project Math QUEST's resource page.


  • Berry, J. (2009). Technology support in nursing education: Clickers in the classroom. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(5), 295-298.

  • DeBourgh, G. A. (2008). Use of classroom "clickers" to promote acquisition of advanced reasoning skills. Nurse Education in Practice, 8(2), 76-87.

  • Moredich, C., & Moore, E. (2007). Engaging students through the use of classroom response systems. Nurse Educator, 32(3), 113-116.

  • Skiba, D. J. (2006). Got large lecture hall classes? Use clickers. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(5), 278-280.

  • Stein, P. S., Challman, S. D., & Brueckner, J. K. (2006). Using audience response technology for pretest reviews in an undergraduate nursing course. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(11), 469-473.

  • Zurmehly, J., & Leadingham, C. (2008). Exploring student response systems in nursing education. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 26(5), 265-270.


Physics and Astronomy

Political Science


  • Briggs, L. (2008, September 24). Using classroom clickers to engage every student. Campus Technology.

  • Campbell, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2008). Questioning as an instructional method: Does it affect learning from lectures? Applied Cognitive Psychology, online.

  • Cleary, A. M. (2008). Using wireless response systems to replicate behavioral research findings in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 35(1), 42-44.

  • Edens, K. M. (2009). The interaction of pedagogical approach, gender, self-regulation, and goal orientation using student response system technology. Jounal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 161-177.

  • Epstein, M. L, et al. (2002). Immediate feedback assessment technique promotes learning and corrects inaccurate first responses. The Psychological Record, 52(2), 187-201.

  • Ewing, A. (2006). Increasing classroom engagement through the use of technology . Accessed April 18, 2008.

  • Fisher, C. M. (2006). Automated classroom response systems: Implications for sexuality education and research. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 1(4), 23-31.

  • Glass, A. L., Brill, G., & Ingate, M. (2008). Combined online and in-class pretesting improves exam performance in general psychology. Educational Psychology, 28(5), 483-503.

  • Kellum, K. K., Carr, J. E., & Dozier, C. L. (2001). Response-card instruction and student learning in a college classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 28(2), 101-104.

  • Langley, M. M., Cleary, A. M., & Kostic, B. N. (2007). On the use of wireless response systems in experimental psychology: Implications for the behavioral researcher. Behavior Research Methods, 39(4), 816-823.

  • Lee, J. B., & Bainum, C. K. (2006, April). Do clickers depersonalize the classroom? An evaluation by shy students. Poster presented at the 86th Annual Convention of the Western Psychological Association, Palm Springs, CA.

  • Mayer, R. E., Stull, A., DeLeeuw, K., Almeroth, K., Bimber, B., Chun, D., Bulger, M., Campbell, J., Knight, A., & Zhang, H. (2009). Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 51-57.

  • Morling, B., McAuliffe, M., Cohen, L., & DiLorenzo, T. M. (2008). Efficacy of personal response systems ("clickers") in large, introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 35(1), 45-50.

  • Poirier, C. R., & Feldman, R. S. (2007). Promoting active learning using individual response technology in large introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 34(3), 194-196.

  • Shaffer, D. M., & Collura, M. J. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of a personal response system in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 36(4), 273-277.

  • Stowell, J. R., & Nelson, J. M. (2007). Benefits of electronic audience response systems on student participation, learning, and emotion. Teaching of Psychology, 34(4), 253-258.



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